Sunday, 30 August 2015

Why the so-called all-purpose cleaners (APC) DO NOT work.

  


Before deciding upon treatment, you should first access what ‘type’ of stain it is, before a stain can be removed the surface tension that bonds it must be released, then the stain encapsulated and held in suspension to be removed.

Use a suitable (dependent upon the type of stain) 20% stain remover with in a solution of and 80 percent distilled water, to remove stains from cloth seats. Spray a small amount of the solution onto the stain. Wait for a few minutes, and then scrub the stained area with a soft bristle brush or old toothbrush. Blot the area with a soft clean cloth

Diagnosis is the key, not guess work. With all cleaning products, always test a small, inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour or stain the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material. As can be seen stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry.
Depending on the pH of the product you use you should return the surface to neutral (pH 7.0) before you apply any dressing or protective products. Always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment

Read the product labels and manufacturers safety data sheets (MSDS) to obtain a basic idea of contents, pH levels etc.


Classifying stains:

a) Organic stains- these include proteins and fats, body oils, mould yeast, bacteria, bugs and carbohydrates. Organic soil is cleaned with an alkaline (pH 8+).Most of the stains found in the vehicle interior are of an organic nature and require an alkaline type cleaner. Some organic stains (i.e. milk, blood, vomit, urine) should be removed with an enzyme type cleaner and a disinfectant applied to the area

b) Non-Organic stains- mostly found on the exterior of the vehicle, hard water scale (calcium) lime deposits, Road tar, grease and oil film, and require an acid (pH 6 or less) type cleaner.

c) Petroleum soils - substances that do not contain water, nor are they miscible, these soil types include, motor oils, and crease and road tar, and require a petroleum-based solvent type cleaner.

Stain Types:

a) Water Soluble Stains- These stains can be dissolved in cool water or loosened with water based cleaner, coffee; soft drinks, cocoa and chocolate are good examples.

b) Oil soluble stains- These are stains that are comprised of oily or greasy substances, which include cooking, oil from fried foods and suntan oil.

c) Combination Stains- These stains contain both water based and oil-soluble properties. Cleaning these stains require treatment with a petroleum solvent followed by water based cleaning solution.

d) Unidentifiable Stains- Sometimes stains cannot be identified. Treat these stains like a combination stain. Clean with a petroleum solvent followed by water based cleaner.
As can be seen with the above lists an all-purpose cleaner will probably not clean stains effectively (Most are butyl based, which is a huge known carcinogen) With all cleaning products (especially solvents) always test a small inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour, stain or etch the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material.

Stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry. Read the product labels and always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment. (See also Vehicle Interior Detailing and Solvents)

All Purpose Cleaner (APC)

As you can see from the above list the so-called ‘all-purpose cleaner’ (APC) cannot remove all stains, usually a high pH (6.0+) it’s better to use a specific stain remover than to compromise. Always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment

Many well-intentioned detailers use the so-called all-purpose cleaning (APC) chemical for detailing. Using a product like Simple Green or a degreaser to clean everything from wheels to carpets is both dangerous and harmful to the materials used for modern automobile materials.

A safer alternate is a Limonene (citrus-based) solvent, they are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use. There is no such thing as a one size fits all type chemical cleaner, regardless of what a car care product vendor would have you believe.

Most detailing chemicals are formulated to remove specific stains and a little knowledge of their pH and chemical content will help in their correct selection and use; the most common types of chemicals include surfactants, solvents, wetting agents, Saponifiers and Chelators

Before using a cleaning product a detailer needs to know the material they are working on, what they are trying to remove and wither the product chosen is compatible with the material and will not damage it.

Diagnosis is the key, not guess work. With all cleaning products, always test a small, inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour or stain the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material. As can be seen stain removal requires some knowledge of basic chemistry. Read the product labels and manufacturers safety data sheets (MSDS) to obtain a basic idea of contents, pH levels etc.

Always select a chemical / cleaner that are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and safe to use by observing any precautions recommended so that they won’t harm you, your vehicle or the environment

Choose carefully whose advice you listen to, and more importantly what advice you act upon. The misinformation and myths that are so prevalent in the detail industry is the reason that detailers need to do research on their own.

I would strongly suggest that you verify any information that I or anyone else shares with you.  Treat all marketing claims as being just biased marketing claims and if you're lucky they will be based on truth and the company will operate ethically.

Saturday, 29 August 2015

How to determine the least aggressive polishing method?


All abrasive polishes arefoam pad and applied pressure dependant’ as far as their paint correction abilities are concerned. Any abrasive / pad combination is reliant upon its most abrasive component.

 If we consider the Lake County (LC) White foam (50 PPI) polishing pad as the baseline; any polish used will derive help from the abrasive abilities of the foam. Then consider the LC Blue (70 PPI) finishing pad has no abrasive ability and will contribute nothing to the cutting capability of a polish.
What is derived from this is that a polishes abrasive ability can be ‘fine-tuned’ by using different combinations (abrasiveness) of polish and foam (the same thing is true of wool pads) and of course differing the amount of downward pressure (10-15 Lbs is the usual range) applied will also have an effect on the abrasives capability

Different pad / product combinations (least abrasive pad / polish first) This is why a ‘test’ spot is so important. 

a)      Base pad / product (least abrasive pad / product) if this combination does not provide the desired results, increase the aggressiveness of the technique or product selection.
b)      Step-up 1 - using the same pad with a more abrasive product
c)      Step-up II – use a less abrasive pad and the same product as used in step-up I
d)      Step-up III- using the same pad with a more abrasive product

As can been ascertained from the above the total abrasive ability of a polish / foam pad combination is subject to many variables, the polishes abrasive ability is just the starting point
Rupes Random Orbital Polishers

Factors that increase abrasion ability
·         Increased speed (Velocity)
·         Increased pressure (Compression)
·         Use smaller pad(Reduced surface Area)
·         Using a slower panel transition speed (Increased surface contact time) 
·         Reduce the working area

The key to the polishing process is to know how the paint will react with each pad / polish combination you consider using. You must know your product and what its capabilities are before using it. This is why a ‘test’ spot is so important. 

The factors that affect the outcome -speed, friction (kinetic energy) applied pressure, foam pad actual surface contact area, pad grit number (abrasive ability) amount of surface lubrication available, the surface area and heat conductivity of material

All pads have a performance cycle, meaning you will get the desired results only to a certain point on that curve. The point of declining performance is typically reached by polish / compound pad being overloaded with product; you should always be able to see the individual cells or texture of the pad, with proper, regular cleaning pad overload can be avoided.

Clean (or replace) you pads frequently: pads are easy to clean; the slotted pad face actually makes it easy to clean. Do not use the same pad to apply differing products as cross contamination will reduce the effectiveness or completely negate their purpose. A new or freshly cleaned pad must be used with each type of car care product.


Other articles from this series - TOGWT Detailing Wiki Articles – Polishing Index
.
1.      Base Coat Clear Coat (BC / CC) Paint System

2.      The Physics of Polishing

3.      Basics of abrasive polishing

4.      How to determine the least aggressive polishing method? -

5.       The Wipedown Process (prior to polishing)

6.      Paint (Solvent / Alcohol) Swelling

7.      Test Panel (polishes and pad selection)

8.       Hard and Soft Paint

9.      Menzerna Rage of Abrasive Polishes

10.  Abrasive Polishes and Pad Performance

11.  Clear Coat and UV Protection Removal

12.  PPG CeramiClear™ ®

13.  Removal of Oxidized Paint

14.  Backing Plates

15.  Foam Pad Selection and Use

16.  Wool Pads I

17.  Wool Pad Cleaning & Care

18.  Micro fibre Pads

19.  Polish and Compound’s

20.  Paint Surface Scratches (Cause & Effect) Repair - Factors that affect Shine / Gloss

21.  Paint Surface Problems and Corrections


22.   Rupes vs, Flex Wet-sanding (Colour sanding) 

Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.

By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated


Copyright © 2002 - 2015 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserved

Thursday, 27 August 2015

Basics of abrasive polishing


Always start with the least abrasive combination, i.e. a machine polish and the least aggressive foam / wool pad.
Automotive paint surfaces comprise numerous microscopic peaks and valleys, much like the profile of a mountain range. These irregularities are known as capillary structures; there may be millions of these defects per square inch. When these scratches are removed from a surface it becomes a smooth level surface that reflects light.
Polishing could be described ‘ as going through the grits’ i.e. each progressive piece of grit finishing paper or pad / polish combination you are replacing scratches with finer and finer scratches until they cannot be seen with the naked eye
Scratches
Are identified by a grit number; "grit" is a reference to the number of abrasive particles per inch of finishing paper that are required to remove the scratches left by the grit scratches i.e. 2000 grit scratches are removed by using an abrasive rated at 3000 grit. You are actually replacing scratches with even finer scratches until they are invisible to the naked eye.
Abrasives
The ability for an abrasive to "cut" depends on the shape of its crystals or particles, not necessarily its size. A medium size, spiked abrasive will tumble and dig. However, a large round crystal won't leave a deep scratch.
A large hard abrasive may also be brittle. It will cut once and lose its edge, while a softer small abrasive will hold its edge and keep on cutting. Many smaller abrasives have wedge shaped edges protruding from triangular crystals. These can easily slice through an oxidized layer of metal.
Polishing –cutting using a compound (an abrasive process) or polishing, (a burnishing process), since the polyurethane is a thermoplastic, generation of excessive heat may cause the molecular structure to soften or expand driving the defect deeper into the substrate
Polish to a ‘haze’ - when a polish "flashes" from a liquid paste to a light semi-dry haze; its colour changes from the polish colour to almost transparent (like a thin film of Vaseline) ; the polish has then broken down and is ready for removal. The point at which a polish is fully broken down comes with experience but a good yard stick is when the polish has become clear and can easily be wiped off.
Breaking-down the abrasives – it is important to know when a diminishing abrasive polish has broken down because if you take it too far it will dust and you will re-introduce surface marring, conversely if you don’t work diminishing abrasives sufficiently they will cause surface marring; this is due to the size of the abrasive and its cutting ability, were as once an abrasive has broken down it will burnish the surface as opposed to cutting it

                                               Note: 'Product Designation' numbers refer to grit
Grit Numbers
Sandpaper or finishing paper is the most common item from a larger group of products known as "coated abrasives" i.e. Aluminium oxide. 

When talking about "grit" is a reference to the number of abrasive particles per inch of finishing paper (sandpaper). The lower the grit the more abrasive and conversely, the higher the grit number the lesser (smoother) the finishing paper
When talking about abrasive finishing paper, "grit" is a reference to the number of abrasive particles per inch of paper. It eliminates the risk of deep sanding scratches by providing a uniform grit size. This makes sense if you imagine how small the grit particles on a 1000-grit finishing paper would need to be to fit into a 1- inch square. Grit finishing paper is referred to by the size of its abrasives (i.e. 1500-grit paper) the grit you use depends on what kind of scratch you are trying to remove

Compound: 1000-1200 grit

Polish:
1500 – 2000 grit

Finishing polish:
2000 – 400 grit

Materials used - most good compounds are a combination of both silica and aluminium oxide. The abrading ability of these compounds can be changed by their application method (i.e. machine speed and/or pressure used, using wet or dry and/or type of foam (different foam compositions have a differing abrading ability) Allow sufficient time for the polish to work, with a more aggressive polish a longer time period is required (approx. 3 – 6 minutes)
The speed at which the foam pad travels across a paint surface is also important, moving too fast won’t allow the micro-abrasive to ‘beak down’, Machine linear speed; machine left to right movement shown as inches per second (IPS) apply polish at an MLS of 3-inches per second with a rotary polisher (1.0 to 1.5-inch per second random orbital buffer).

Lessen the Need for Polishing

Polishing removes the paint matrix system's ultra violet protection. Proper washing and drying techniques are the best way to avoid the need for polishing. Using a chemical paint cleanser versus polishing on a clean finish to simply remove old wax/sealant is another. And always follow the rule of using the least abrasive polish and pad combination (working smarter not harder) Light polishes contain either mild abrasives and / or a chemical cleaner (solvent) most mild abrasive polishes will remove medium scratches or surface imperfections

Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.

By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated


Copyright © 2002 - 2015 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserved

Friday, 21 August 2015

Calcified Water Marks


Often found from parking in municipal or underground parking facilities, calcified water spots on paint and glass, water and concrete spots are pretty much the same chemically; they are consist of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) both of which are basic (alkaline pH 10)  with the concrete being cross-linked with water. Often mistaken as Bird Excrement   
 
               Correction - these can sometimes be removed by using detailer's clay to remove any hardened surface deposits

a) Apply 1:1 ratio distilled water with distilled White Vinegar (Acetic acid, pH 2) solution, and a drop or two of carwash concentrate to provide surface lubrication, Use a spray bottle to apply the solute mixture on the spots and let them "soak." Then rinse with water and repeat as necessary

b) If the ambient temperature water/vinegar mix does not work, use warm (100-120 degrees) 100% distilled White Vinegar, saturate a clean kitchen sponge with undiluted  vinegar and hold the sponge over the concrete spots for a few minutes

c) If the above do not remove them try equal parts distilled water, isopropyl alcohol and distilled white vinegar plus a drop or two of car wash concentrate for surface lubrication. The acid in the vinegar will help etch and dissolve the concrete.
·        
Rinse the area thoroughly with water after the vinegar and then reapply wax or sealant to that area.
·      
  To remove any surface etching use a machine polish ( Optimum Polish, Optimum Compound, Z-PC Fusion Dual Action Paint Cleaner or Swissvax Cleaner) and a cutting (LC Orange or Yellow) foam pad to level the surface (use the least aggressive polish/foam pad first, if this doesn’t remove the problem step-up to a more aggressive set-up)

·         Work on a very small area at a time (2-foot x 2-foot) until the polish has run out
·         Repeat this process two or three times, as necessary
·         If none of the above methods remove the etched water spots consider wet-sanding the paint finish
·         Reapply surface protection once spots have been removed


Notes:
·         Portland cement (a binder) is the most common type of cement in general use around the world, used as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and most non-specialty grout. It’s made by heating powdered limestone with clay

·         Concrete is made by mixing cement with sand, water and aggregate (crushed rock). Chemical reactions happen in the mixtures and eventually they set

Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.

By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated

Copyright © 2002 - 2015 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserved

Removing Water (Spots) Marks


Water doesn’t leave marks or etch surfaces; it’s the minerals that it contains calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) and reactivity (heat acting as a catalyst) the spots are actually traces of minerals left on the surface when the water evaporates. Alternatively they can be caused by industrial pollution (i.e. acid rain, bird excrement or industrial fallout)

Generally surface water-spots have no raised edges and are very shallow and so cannot be felt, they are very similar to micro-fine surface marring. They cannot be removed from the surface by washing but they can usually be removed with a 1:1 solution of vinegar and distilled water; this acid-based (acetic acid) formula breaks the bond between mineral deposits and the vehicle surface. For minor surface etching use a slightly abrasive chemical paint cleaner

Note: Vinegar is a liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, Acetic (Ethanoic) acid, pH 2.7

There are two categories of water mark (See also Calcified Water Marks)

Stage I (Surface) Corrosion
[: defined as a surface with light to moderate corrosion damage to the paint surface]

Stage II (Sub-surface) Corrosion
[: definition when the dirt/corrosion deposits are no longer on the surface but have started to break down the molecular structure, leaving an etched or white haze on the surface( a concave circular mark ) after the stain has been removed, with moderate to serious paint damage]

a) Surface water spots- (Stage I Corrosion) alkaline watermarks consist of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) both of which are basic (alkaline pH 10) that alight on the surface; ultra violet (heat) radiation (UVR) will leave a white ‘water mark’, the minute crystals bond to the surface, they will not wash off as they are insoluble and if left for any length of time they will etch the paint film surface leaving a concave circular mark, remove surface deposits with detailer’s clay and an acetic acid pH 2.0 (vinegar) to naturalise the alkaline

b) Below surface (etched) spots- (Stage II Corrosion ) are caused by an aggressive alkaline or an acidic solution (acid rain, bird excrement or industrial fallout) causing a chemical reaction, if left for any length of time they will etch the paint film surface leaving a concave circular mark. Unlike water spots which typically have a white outline of the spot, acid rain etching is smaller and you can see the damage in the clear coat.

Inspect the surface etching under magnification, and then you will be able to assess the damage. Magnification will allow you to view paint flaws in perfect detail. View the edges of acid rain or water spot damage, and the hard-to-see depth of scratches. Only then, you will be able to assess the real damage. The edge should be levelled, which will make the etched depression almost invisible.
Etched acid rain spots are one of the most difficult paint defects to remove so be patient as it will probably take more than one attempt to remove them.

Acid spots require an abrasive polish to level the surface (some stubborn marks may require wet sanding) and an alkaline solution to neutralize them, simply rinsing a vehicle with deionised water or tap water activates / reactivates the acid concentrates.

If the surface can be rectified by chemical means then this is the answer; not abrasive polishing. Using the correct chemical cleaners will dissolve the contaminants rather than abrading the surface. With all cleaning products (especially solvents) always test a small inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour, stain or etch the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material After the paint surface has been subjected to a chemical cleaning its protective layer (s) have been removed and the paint surface left without protection, so it is very important that a polymer and / or Carnauba wax protection be applied immediately

Removing ‘Water spots’

1) Removing surface (Stage I Corrosion) water marks


Optimum MDR Mineral Deposit Remover - eliminates the need to use abrasive polishes for the removal of light water spots. Water spots start out as a topical contaminant, but over time they will etch the paint, requiring an abrasive to completely remove. Topical water spots are considered Type 1, and that's the kind Optimum MDR Water Spot Remover is designed to remove.

MDR is designed to dissolve water spots and other mineral-laden water-based contaminants before they etch your vehicle’s paint. This thick and non-abrasive gel formula easily clings to the surface allowing the environmentally safe acids and chelating agents to power through mineral build-up. MDR leaves the surface clean, smooth, and water spot free.

Depending on where you live, you may be all too familiar with the scaly build-up left behind by hard water. Calcium, magnesium, and other naturally occurring minerals in water can harden inside pipes and on to your car.  If your vehicle is parked next to a sprinkler, or washed with your garden hose that is hooked up to a water source with high mineral content, you can expect to see that nasty build-up on your vehicle over time. MDR provides a safe and effective way to remove the build-up and save your paint from unsightly etching.

Ideal for use on any hard exterior surface including paint, glass, chrome, and wheels. To use, simply apply a quarter-sized amount to and applicator pad and work into the surface for 30-60 seconds, then wipe away the product residue to check the results. Follow with a thorough wash to remove any additional residue, and then apply your favourite paint protection.

2) Removing etched below surface (Stage II Corrosion) water marks

                      These can be removed by using detailer's clay to remove any hardened surface deposits
                      Then using a machine polish ( Optimum Polish, Optimum Compound, Zaino Z-PC Fusion Dual Action Paint Cleaner or Swissvax Cleaner ) and a cutting (LC Orange or Yellow) foam pad (speed # 4-5.0 / 1200 RPM ) to level the surface (use the least aggressive polish/foam pad first, if this doesn’t remove the problem step-up to a more aggressive set-up)
                      Work on a very small area at a time (2-foot x 2-foot) until the polish has run out
                      Repeat this process two or three times, as necessary
                      Reapply surface (paint) protection once spots have been removed.

If none of the above methods remove the etched water spots consider wet-sanding the paint finish (See also Glass Polishing article)

To neutralise acid water spots using a polish or compound will remove the etching and the indentations, the below paint surface should then be neutralised ValuGard A B C Decontamination / Neutralization system

If the surface can be rectified by chemical means then this is the answer; not abrasive polishing. Using the correct chemical cleaners will dissolve the contaminants rather than abrading the surface. With all cleaning products (especially solvents) always test a small inconspicuous area first to ensure it won't discolour, stain or etch the surface, and ensure that the pH of the product is suitable for the material

After the paint surface has been subjected to a chemical cleaning its protective layer (s) have been removed and the paint surface left without protection, so it is very important that a paint protection be applied immediately

Notes-
1.        Synthetic steel or bronze wool whatever the grade can leave micro-scratches in the glass, which then become impregnated with road dirt, grit and grime, causing a clouding the glass over time, which impairs visibility.
2.        Do not use abrasive cleaner; glass polish or any grade synthetic steel wool on after market-tinted glass or you will probably scratch the surface.
3.        For deeply etched water spots (> 0.004 Mil) in the windshield surface, do not attempt to polish them out, consult an automotive windshield vendor as glass or plastic used on later model cars is soft and thin (this may vary by manufacturer) due to weight / cost savings by vehicle manufactures and polishing could cause surface to become badly scratched, stressed or cracked.
4.        Be cautious with polishes that contain abrasives like aluminium or cerium oxide as they have the potential to damage glass beyond repair.
5.        Some windshields and mirrors have a tinted plastic coating or a blue tint that will scratch or be damaged, only use a glass polish (not synthetic steel or bronze wool) on uncoated glass.


Always be willing to learn; because the more you learn, the more you’ll realize what you don’t know. It is said that knowledge is power, with the caveat that it includes access to a reliable information sources. I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.
I hope these articles are informative. They are based on the current status of technical development as well as my experience with the products.

By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.
I would appreciate it if you would share these articles as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

As always if you have questions, I’ll do my best to answer; bear in mind the only stupid questions is the one that was unasked. Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated


Copyright © 2002 - 2015 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserved