Wednesday, 24 August 2016

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
PPE is specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against a hazard. General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts or blouses) not intended to function as protection against a hazard is not considered to be personal protective equipment.
 For your safety and the legally required protection of employees, you will need to have personal protective equipment available that will include a respirator fitting for you and your employees. At no time should you endanger yourself or others, take any unnecessary risks or infringe any laws. OSHA standards require that employers maintain or improve workplace conditions to protect employees.
Protection from Potential Health Hazards
Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to include: Boots, Chemical resistant gloves, Aprons, No loose fitting clothing or articles that may be caught in moving parts, Avoid belts with buckles that may damage painted surfaces, Avoid sharp objects that may damage leather or fabric upholstery
1.      Warning: Always use a ground circuit fault indicator) (GFPI) when using any electrical device around water
2.      Eye Protection: I would strongly advise the wearing of safety glasses or visor (prescription eyeglasses are not a substitute) when operating any machine polisher. OSHA requires employers to ensure the safety of all employees in the work environment. Eye and face protection must be provided whenever necessary to protect against chemical, environmental, radiological or mechanical irritants and hazards.
3.      Hearing Protection; the constant pitch of a polishing machine could affect your hearing so wearing ear plugs would be wise to protect you from hearing loss. Studies have shown that one half of workers that wear ear defenders receive half or less of the protection they should. This is because their ear defenders are not worn correctly or continuously due to improper or uncomfortable fit. Ear plugs that are comfortable fit every time and are also easy to use; the result of this is that the user wears them, and that they do the job.UK - http://www.ultimateear.com/industrial.php
4.      Hand Protection; Gloves- with the verity of chemicals a detailer uses on a daily basis wearing chemical-resistant gloves resist penetration and permeation, and will provide protection against dermatitis and chemical burns. Gloves can provide protection, but they must be chosen with care, the proper selection matched to the hazard is critical as they offer a much needed protective barrier when handling cleaning chemicals such as wheel cleaners and multipurpose cleaners.
Nitrile gloves are made of synthetic latex. They contain no latex proteins and offer excellent resistance to punctures and tears. Nitrile gloves are three times more puncture resistant than rubber and can be used to offer superior resistance to many types of chemicals.
Chemical-resistant gloves resist penetration and permeation, and cam protect against dermatitis, chemical burns and corrosion. Nitrile gloves are three times more puncture resistant than latex rubber and can be used to offer superior resistance to many types of chemicals. Unlike other latex gloves, Nitrile gloves have low resistance to friction and are very easy to slide on –
Clove Chemical Resistance Chart - http://www.adenna.com/pdf/ChemicalsResistance.pdf
5.      Respiratory Protection (N95): Materials such as aluminium oxide (Aluminium oxide is on EPA's TRI list if it is a fibrous form) or silicon carbide (Nuisance particulate-Accumulation in lungs) used in polishes and compounds, and powdered fillers
6.      Crystalline silica (polishes and compounds) poses a serious inhalation hazard because it can cause silicosis and Isocyanate clear coat residue represent a hazard to your lungs and may cause respiratory distress. Use  a NIOSH-approved half face respirator equipped with a combination filter cartridge should be worn while using them
7.      Consult the current 3M Respiratory Selection Guide for additional information or call 1-800-243-4630 for 3M technical assistance.
8.      Material Safety Data Sheets:  Use a ring binder or other filing system to ensure the appropriate MSDS is always available to identify hazardous substances
9.      Work Hygienic Practices: Rinse cloves under running water before removing them
10.  Chemical clean-up: small spillage: absorb spill with an inert absorbent material (e.g. dry sand or kitty litter), then place in a chemical waste container. If liquid has been spilt in large quantities clean up promptly by scoop or vacuum.
11.  Protect yourself, work safe. As in all things, allow common sense to prevail and proceed with due caution
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) is the UK law that requires employers to control substances that are hazardous to health - http://www.hse
GFCI and Extension Cord
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter and Extension cord selection is based on two main principles. First, the cable should be able to carry the current load imposed on it without overheating. It should be able to do this in the most extreme conditions of temperature it will encounter during its working life.
Second, it should offer sufficiently sound earthing to (a) limit the voltage to which people are exposed to a safe level and (b) allow the fault current to trip the fuse or MCB in a short time. To meet these requirements requires consideration of the circuit load current (AMPS) a reasonable voltage drop, cable thickness (G) and length (feet) and the over-current protection device
Prime Wire & Cable Duplex GFCI -residual current device is also known as a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) junction Box with 6-Ft. cord, Model# GF200806 Portable GFCI duplex receptacle detects power leaks and shuts off electricity in less than a second to prevent shock. Test and reset buttons Tough jobsite box with 6-ft. 12/3 SJTW power cord UL listed, meets OSHA standards.
Prime Wire & Cable 50-Ft extension 12/3 Neon Power Cord — Blue, Model# NS514830 Bright NEON extension cord stands out for easy identification. 12 Gauge, SJTW, 3 prong cord features super-flexible vinyl jacket with a cold temperature rating of -31°F. LIGHTED connector indicates when power is on. Cord is water and flame resistant and rated at 15 amps, 125V, 1875 watts, UL listed and meets OSHA standards – Northern Tool
Eye Protection
I would strongly advise the wearing of safety glasses or visor (prescription eyeglasses are not a substitute) when operating any machine polisher. Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials of various impact resistances, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1 millimetre thickness at the thinnest point, regardless of material.
OSHA requires employers to ensure the safety of all employees in the work environment. Eye and face protection must be provided whenever necessary to protect against chemical, environmental, radiological or mechanical irritants and hazards.
The type of safety eye protection you should wear depends on the hazards in your workplace. If you are working in an area that has particles, flying objects, or dust, you must at least wear safety glasses with side protection (side shields). If you are working with chemicals, you should wear goggles. If you are working near hazardous grinding, welding or abrasive polishing; you must use special-purpose safety glasses, goggles, face shields, or helmets designed for that task.
The Wise Owl Program, sponsored by Prevent Blindness America, has recognized more than 86,000 people who avoided losing their sight in a workplace accident because they were wearing proper eye protection.
Chemical Burns to the Eye
In all cases of eye contact with chemicals:
·         Immediately flush the eye with water or any other drinkable liquid. Hold the eye under a faucet or shower, or pour water into the eye using a clean container. Keep the eye open and as wide as possible while flushing. Continue flushing for at least 15 minutes.
·         DO NOT use an eyecup.
·         If a contact lens is in the eye, begin flushing over the lens immediately. This may wash away the lens.
·         DO NOT bandage the eye.
·         Seek immediate medical treatment after flushing.
Specks in the Eye
·         DO NOT rub the eye
·         Try to let tears wash the speck out or use eyewash.
·         Try lifting the upper eyelid outward and down over the lower lid.
·         If the speck does not wash out, keep the eye closed, bandage it lightly, and see a doctor
Ear Protection
Hearing Protection; the constant pitch of a polishing machine could affect your hearing so wearing ear plugs would be wise to protect you from hearing loss. Studies have shown that one half of workers that wear ear defenders receive half or less of the protection they should. This is because their ear defenders are not worn correctly or continuously due to improper or uncomfortable fit. Ear plugs that are comfortable fit every time and are also easy to use; the result of this is that the user wears them, and that they do the job.UK - http://www.ultimateear.com/industrial.php
The constant pitch of a polishing machine could affect your hearing so wearing ear plugs would be wise to protect you from hearing loss. There are mainly two types of earplugs for hearing protection:
1. Foam earplugs, mainly made of memory foam, which are compressed and put into the ear canal, where they expand to plug it.
2. Silicone earplugs, which are rolled into a ball and carefully moulded to fit over the external portion of the ear canal, providing a snug custom fit for the wearer.
Noise Levels dB (A)
What are the occupational exposure limits for workplace noise?
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) for noise are typically given as the maximum duration of exposure permitted for various noise levels.
Level of noise dB (A)             Maximum daily exposure
            85                                            8 hours
            91                                            2 hours
            95                                            1 hour
            97                                            0.5 hour
           100                                           0.25 hour
What is the criterion level? The criterion level, often abbreviated as Lc, is the steady noise level permitted for a full eight-hour work shift. This is 90 dB (A) in most jurisdictions, but in some jurisdictions it is 85 dB (A).
Hand Protection
Gloves provide a barrier protection; with the verity of chemicals a detailer uses on a daily basis wearing chemical-resistant gloves resist penetration and permeation, and will provide protection against dermatitis and chemical burns. Gloves can provide protection, but they must be chosen with care, the proper selection matched to the hazard is critical as they offer a much needed protective barrier when handling cleaning chemicals such as wheel cleaners and multipurpose cleaners.
Chemical-resistant gloves resist penetration and permeation, and cam protect against dermatitis, chemical burns and corrosion. Nitrile gloves are three times more puncture resistant than latex rubber and can be used to offer superior resistance too many types of chemicals. Unlike other latex gloves, Nitrile gloves have low resistance to friction and are very easy to slide on.
Clove Chemical Resistance Chart - http://www.adenna.com/pdf/ChemicalsResistance.pdf
Nitrile gloves are made of synthetic latex. They contain no latex proteins and offer excellent resistance to punctures and tears. Nitrile gloves are three times more puncture resistant than rubber and can be used to offer superior resistance too many types of chemicals.
Nitrile gloves vary in softness and flexibility Nitrile and latex protective gloves both come in various degrees of thickness, powdered or non-powdered, and sterile or non-sterile. Nitrile is favoured by many, primarily because so many people have latex allergies. Nitrile gloves are also more resistant to punctures, making this material suitable for many professions
1.      Vinyl gloves have great strength, contain no protein or allergenic proteins however, they do not offer the same tactile properties as latex or Nitrile
2.      Latex gloves, due to their high level of elasticity, comfort and dexterity and fit the user hands very well
3.      Latex gloves and vinyl gloves are generally very affordable. Nitrile gloves, polyurethane gloves and other synthetic gloves are usually more costly.
Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS)
Hand-arm vibration syndrome causes symptoms in fingers, hands and arms caused by vibrating tools. It used to be called vibration white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). The name was changed to HAVS as other symptoms may occur in addition to white fingers.
What causes hand-arm vibration syndrome?
It‘s caused by repeated and frequent use of hand-held vibrating tools. For example, power drills, chainsaws, pneumatic drills, etc. It may also be caused by holding or working with machinery that vibrates. It is not clear how vibration causes the condition. It is probably due to slight but repeated injury to the small nerves and blood vessels in the fingers. Over time these may gradually lose some of their function and cause symptoms. Possibly, up to 1 in 10 people who work regularly with vibrating tools may develop HAVS.
The following steps are thought to help prevent HAVS in workers who use vibrating tools:
·         Hold tools as loosely as possible, and in varying positions.
·         Do not use an excessively tight grip or to use a tool for longer than necessary.
·         Ensure that tools are well maintained
·         Use the correct counter-balance in oscillating polishers
·         Use tools correctly, and use the right tool for the job.
·         Use ant vibration gloves.
·         Take regular breaks of at least 10 minutes, short bursts of work are better than long periods without a break.
·         Keep your hands warm.
A medicine called Nifedipine may be prescribed if symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon are severe. It works by opening up (dilating) the small blood vessels. Some people take Nifedipine regularly, each day, to prevent symptoms. Some people take Nifedipine just during the winter, or just during cold weather spells.
Mechanics (Mechanix) Glove - heavy duty mechanical gloves use a special fabric, unlike leather it breathes offering comfort and non slip in wet, double padding in palm for extra protection and a layer of silicon fingers tips giving extra protection.
Anti Vibration (AV) Gloves - the range of gloves available are designed to exceed the rigorous requirements of the ISO Standard 10819 (ANSI S3.4-2002) for the absorption of vibration due to direct hand contact with vibrating equipment, machinery or hand held tools.
AV Glove Liner - can be worn alone or under standard work gloves to protect against shock and impact, Akton® padding cushions the hand and spreads vibration energy away from original point of contact, allows complete fingertip dexterity for improved control. Breathable cotton spandex body
Respiratory Protection
Materials such as aluminium oxide (Aluminium oxide is on EPA's TRI list if it is a fibrous form) or silicon carbide (Nuisance particulate-Accumulation in lungs) used in polishes and compounds, and powdered fillers (Crystalline silica poses a serious inhalation hazard because it can cause silicosis) and Isocyanate clear coat residue represent a hazard to your lungs and may cause respiratory distress. Use a NIOSH-approved half face respirator equipped with a combination filter cartridge should be worn while using them
Consult the current 3M Respiratory Selection Guide for additional information or call 1-800-243-4630 for 3M technical assistance.
Bibliography
1.      American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) publications
2.      Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations & Compliance Links
3.      Handbook of Hearing and the Effects of Noise, K.D. Kryter


Tuesday, 5 July 2016

Special Waxes (Marque specific)


An organic wax, unlike a polymer, has no chemical interaction with paint; it forms a thin hard ‘shell’ as opposed to some coatings or a polymer, which forms a molecular bond. A wax when it’s correctly applied as a thin translucent layer, this renewable barrier is probably less than 0.1 µ which is a barely visible film.
The clear coat is the final original equipment manufacturers coating applied to a vehicle to protect the (base) colour coat from environmental damage, while providing both depth and a durable, glossy appearance, originally designed to protect and enhance metallic paints, but is now applied to all colours.
Claims that certain waxes are formulated and / or manufactured for specific paint types, paint colours or made specifically for a certain vehicle marquee or that they are matched to particular characteristics of individual paint systems has absolutely no factual chemical basis, it’s merely marketing hype.
Any product applied on top of the clear coat needs to be transparent otherwise both the paint colour and its depth of shine will be muted.
For example both Porsche and Ferrari (amongst others) use Glasurit as their paint supplier, very different vehicle manufacturers. How would a wax especially made for Italian paint (Zymöl Ital) not work on a German Porsche?
Paint specifications
There have been several advancements and changes to clear coat technology as well as the overall OEM, not to mention changes in environmental regulations for chemical compositions used by the factory’s paint suppliers.

It is important to note that manufacturer-approved paint suppliers vary by country as each country (and even province/state) has their own environmental laws that collision centres must adhere to. For example, in the UK, Standox, Spies Hecker, and BASF are the approved paint suppliers for Mercedes-Benz collision centres; in the US, it is PPG, BASF, and Standox. In Canada, only BASF and Standox are the approved paint suppliers and you will find only one or the other at any authorized Mercedes-Benz collision centre.

• Each vehicle assembly plant uses different clear coat paint from one of three major paint suppliers; PPG, DuPont, and BASF products and each of these companies have a range of several differing paints
• Most vehicle manufacturers will issue a painting specification that denotes amongst other things; a paint to hardener ratio, dependent upon quality control this spec may or may not be strictly adhered to
• Some vehicle manufacturers have more than one plant assembling the same model of a vehicle; each plant will often use a different supplier for the clear coat paints.
• Each assembly plant may elect to use one of several OEM paints from PPG, DuPont or BASF clear coat product lines.

This is also true of imports assembled in the US; usually one paint supplier is approved for all plants; however, each plant may modify the application/bake process in order to meet production demand. 
.
There are other factors that will have an effect; the composition of the clear coat used (single, duel component, or powder) this generally reflects the trade-off the OEM is prepared to accept between scratch resistance and gloss level considered acceptable, oven drying time and its temperature, quality of the quality of the isocyanates used, relevant age (i.e. how long ago was the paint applied) spot panel repairs (refinish) that are carried out either at the assembly plant or the rail head or port of entry

I will concede that some waxes look better when used on light or dark coloured paints.
A wax that is formulated with high oil content produces jetting or ripple effect (the so-called ‘wet-look) by diffuse reflection and seems to enhance dark colours, whereas higher polymer content will enhance light colours due to spatial reflection, similar to water on a mirrored surface

An applied wax protection is less than 0.1 µ; so the suggestion that a coating this thin could change or even enhance a colour doesn’t sound very plausible to me.


Although waxes and polymers do have differing light reflectance properties and differing paint colours will reflect light differently in according with their Light Reflective Value (LRV) (See Light Reflection article)
I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.
I hope the above article was informative. By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professionals alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge. No one can know it all, no matter how long they have been detailing; share experience and knowledge so that we learn from each other. Each one Teach one.

Choose carefully whose advice you listen to, and more importantly what advice you act upon. I would strongly suggest that you verify any information that I or anyone else shares with you. The misinformation and myths that are so prevalent in the detail industry is the reason that detailers need to do research on their own. 

Treat all marketing claims as being just biased marketing claims.
I would appreciate it if you would share this article as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated.


Copyright © 2010 - 2016 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserve

Friday, 1 July 2016

Layering Carnauba Wax


 Victoria Wax


Products:

Victoria Wax Pre-Wax Cleaner - for optimum results, this product must be used before applying this paste waxes for the first time. A unique non-abrasive formulation for regular and clear-coated paint finishes. Use as a foundation paint preparation, it gently cleans the paintwork and helps to create a perfect bond between the finish and the wax and create depth of shine.

            Victoria Concours Wax -  apply a thin coat, gently work it in and let it sit until tacky, then using a 100% cotton micro fibre towel gently remove everything to expose a finish ready for the wax. If needed, repeat cleaning action until all contaminates, grime and foreign products are removed. Remember, the cleansing and prepping process should only be done before the wax is applied for the first time and there after only when needed.

Concours wax - especially designed for black and red to add extra warmest wettest finish
Chaos - designed for extra gloss and suitable for all colours especially metallic colours
Mayhem - gives natural look - prepped look suitable for all colours.
Collectors - yellow wax is to similar mayhem but contains fewer polymers.

Using a damp applicator and cold (almost ice) distilled water in a fine mist spray bottle neutralizes any solvents in the newly applied layer; the water should be cold, using ice cold water after applying a wax will harden the wax quicker making the shine deeper and help the new wax adhere to the finish, working until the water/ wax solution disappears.

The reason for using a damp applicator is to neutralize the solvents as much as possible, and to avoid the thin coats of wax sticking to the applicator, this enables the wax to build thin, fine coats. Spray fine mists of cold (almost ice) distilled water to a single panel and then apply a light Carnauba wax to the paint surface.

 Always apply extremely thin layers using a very light pressure when spit shining, Wipe it onto a small work area and continue wiping until most of the wax disappears. Mist lightly as needed, keeping a few water droplets on the surface. Move to the next work area and repeat. After you do the final area you’ll have a surface with many spots of hazed wax. Lightly mist an area with the very cold distilled water - 1/2 hood or door - and lightly buff with a MF towel.

Turn the towel frequently, when the towel becomes too damp switch to a new towel.
When you spray very cold water on a Carnauba wax layer that has been allowed to outgas (i.e. the solvents that make up its carrier system have evaporated) it reduces the wax surface temperature to the point that the next applied waxes carrier solvents do not dilute the previously applied wax and it forms a semi-hard coat.

·         Allow each subsequent Carnauba waxes solvents to outgas before applying more layers. Spit shining allows definitive layers, as opposed to a thick coat of wax that would result if the solvents dissolve the wax layer that they are applied to.

·         After 24 hours you can repeat the procedure, using cold (almost ice) distilled water and Pinnacle Crystal Mist (a low solvent quick detail (QD) each coat applied will increase the surface depth of shine with five or six coats being optimal

·         Allow the radiation heat to ‘sweat’ the wax and then buff with a 100% cotton micro fibre towel.
Also be aware that the both the product and the foam pad may be non-abrasive, but application pressure if not kept to an absolute minimum and using use a very light and even pressure, may re-introduce surface marring and/or removal of the previously applied product by friction

Carnauba Wax Flakes 

Application of wax with Bare Hands

Zymöl and Swissvax DO NOT endorse the use of an applicator for use with their Estate waxes and glazes for optimum results. Once you get used to applying soft waxes with the tips of your fingers, I’ve found I used less product as was able to spread it thinly and evenly.

This application method has a lot to do with personal preference and individual experience really. David Wyllie Sr. (owner of Victoria Wax) is a great proponent of this application method
Apply wax thinner than any other waxes you have applied. The surface should not be too cold or too hot. And out of direct sunlight. Work in small sections and don't let the wax completely dry before buffing.

Take your tub of soft wax (Victoria Concours Red Wax, Swissvax, Zymol, etc.) and gently rub the surface with your fingertips but don't stick your fingers all the way in. Using small overlapping circles apply to one panel at a time. When you’ve done the second panel and remove the wax from the first panel with a 100% cotton towel and move on to the third panel and so on

Applying to small sections and massaging in the wax will quickly start the cure process and exposure to the air will allow a full wax set-up. Allow the radiation heat to ‘sweat’ the wax and then buff with a 100% cotton micro fibre towel.

Bibliography
1.                  Relevant Material Data Sheet (MSDS) – http://bit.ly/7uM4QA
2.                  Zymöl- (http://www.Zymöl.com/carnauba.htm)
3.                  Swissvax - SWISSVAX - the ultimate car care products hand-made in Switzerland
4.                  Wikipedia - Carnauba wax - Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia
5.                  Strahl & Pitsch (Brasilia Carnauba) - Carnauba Wax
6.                  Abstracts from articles related to Auto Appearance Chemicals – Dow Corning
7.                  Why apply wax with bare hands? by David Wyllie
8.                  The Chemistry and Technology of Waxes, by Albin H. Warth; Second Edition 1956
9.                  The Chemical Formulary, by H. Bennett
10.              Propolis-Research Review, by La Rocco, Mike Vespa 2001

Information resource -
1.                  Zymöl and Swissvax Internet websites
2.                  The Basics of Silicon Chemistry - Dow Corning
3.                  Dow Chemical Manufacturing (Auto appearance chemicals) - Chemical Manufacturing - Auto Appearance Chemicals - Formulations - Dow Corning
4.         The Royal Society of Chemistry; Cambridge, 1995 Silicon-Containing Polymers Jones, Richard, G

I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.
I hope the above article was informative. By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

No one can know it all, no matter how long they have been detailing; share experience and knowledge so that we learn from each other. Each one Teach one.

Choose carefully whose advice you listen to, and more importantly what advice you act upon. I would strongly suggest that you verify any information that I or anyone else shares with you. The misinformation and myths that are so prevalent in the detail industry is the reason that detailers need to do research on their own. 

Treat all marketing claims as being just biased marketing claims.

I would appreciate it if you would share this article as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.
Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated.


Copyright © 2010 - 2016 TOGWT® (Established 1980) all rights reserve


Friday, 24 June 2016

Surface Tension




Surface Tension
The tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid, which tends to minimize surface area

Surface Tension [: cohesive forces among liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon of surface tension. In the bulk of the liquid, each molecule is pulled equally in every direction by neighbouring liquid molecules, resulting in a net force of zero]

The molecules at the surface do not have the same molecules on all sides of them and therefore are pulled inwards. This creates some internal pressure and forces liquid surfaces to contract to the minimal area, which produces spheres of rain water (beading) on a waxy surface, such as a leaf. Water adheres weakly to wax and strongly to itself, so water clusters into drops. Surface tension gives them their near-spherical shape, because a sphere has the smallest possible surface area to volume ratio. Surface tension is responsible for the shape of liquid droplets or spheres. 

Although easily deformed, droplets of water tend to be pulled into a spherical shape by the imbalance in cohesive forces of the surface layer. In the absence of other forces, including gravity, drops of virtually all liquids would be approximately spherical. The spherical shape minimizes the necessary "wall tension" of the surface layer according to the Young–Laplace equation, describing pressure difference over an interface in fluid mechanics



Surface energy [: is the elastic tendency of liquids which makes them acquire the least surface area possible] 

It has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area. Surface energy and surface tension are equivalents, but when referring to energy per unit of area, people use the term surface energy, which is a more general term in the sense that it applies also to solids and not just liquids. In order to successfully form a continuous coating, the liquid should be able to wet the surface of the material. 

Wettability depends on one specific property of the surface: surface energy. The surface energy of the solid substrate directly affects how well a liquid wets the surface. To achieve good wettability, the surface energy of the substrate needs to exceed that of the surface tension of the liquid by around 2 - 10 mN/m (Dynes). The Dyne level reflects the surface wettability - the higher the Dyne level, the better the wettability/adhesion.

Saturday, 11 June 2016

“When is my paint past the point of no return; necessitating a vehicle repaint”




Polishing alleviates a myriad of paint surface problems. But use abrasive polishes wisely to maintain paint condition and to resolve surface damage problems. But know when to seek alternative methods of damage control and avoid over polishing with harsh, abrasive polishes.
Modern clear coat paint finishes are so good today that they lull people into thinking that vehicle paint has protection and shine when in reality there is not really much there, other than the clear coat that has a thickness of ~25.4 µ. As a point of reference a sheet of copy paper is 89 µ

The clear coat provides gloss plus physical protection from the elements, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is in the upper level of a cured clear coat. Most car manufacturers will only allow ~ 25% of the clear-coat thickness to be removed without voiding the paint warranty and long-term durability problems becoming an issue. That means that if you started off with 50µ of clear coat (this will vary by vehicle mfg.) you would only be able to remove 12µ without voiding the paint warranty and possibly having a re-paint (Note: this may vary by vehicle mfg.).

There is ultra violet (UV) protection all the way through the paint, but the majority of it migrates to the top of cross-linked clear coat along with the thinner solvents and particles, the paint is also less dense (softer) below this level.  Therefore, removing clear coat ultra violet protection is not a linear process; by removing a small percentage of the clear coat paint tends to remove a larger percentage of the ultra violet (UV) inhibitors.

With a clear coat thickness of ~49µ and knowing that most of the ultra violet protection is in the top 50% (~24.5µ); therefore, limiting UV protection removal to   ~25 % means that approximately 6.125µ< can be removed before the ultra violet protection is compromised.  Once you remove too much clear coat you'll have no paint UV protection other than what you apply with a LSP (providing it contains UV protection.

Be cognizant that clear coat removal is not a liner process; and the first paint renovation will remove the most UV protection, therefore the above are probably conservative estimates. Two variables need to be established; how much clear coat is available and how much clear coat can be removed without compromising the paint systems long-term durability / paint warranty

·         200µ (micron) + can be expected on older cars that have been hand painted or a re-painted vehicle
·         100 – 200µ 4 – 8 mil - normal paint thickness
·         80 – 100 µ - 3 – 4 mils, thin paint
·         80 µ < - less than 3 mils, very thin paint

These numbers are offered as a guide only, as there are too many variables to provide any more than an approximation.

Ultra violet protection (UV) a clear coat paint (isocyanate polyurethane) provides the colour and base coats with protection, and usually has ultra violet (UV) protection added in the final coating; this tends to migrate towards the upper level of the clear coat (this is why it’s important to check how much of the paint surface you are removing with an abrasive polish)

Removing more than 0.5 mil (12µ) of clear coat will cause premature paint film failure UV protection is a sacrificial / renewable component; this is due to the UV protection layer being degraded by exposure to the elements (sun, sand, road or sea salt, and etc.) it is also water miscible, so it is imperative that you renew it and needs to be re-applied on a regular basis (dependent upon location climatic condition)

Alternatives to abrasive machine polishing

Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Professional Finish - its cut and gloss characteristics make it ideal for removing wash marring and faint swirl marks on all paint types, and its filler-free formula also makes it a great choice for refining out machine holograms after heavy compounding. Add to the equation the fact that it's easy to use, generates no dust and laughs in the face of sticky paint, and it's easy to see why it is a must-have product for minor enhancement duties on all modern Porsches and Range Rovers.


Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Regular - advanced chemical cleaning agents strip away any residual grime and old protective layers, while kaolin clay particles and heavy glazing oils visually reduce the extent of wash marring and minor swirl marks by filling such defects and robbing sunlight of sharp edges off of which to reflect. In short, Swissvax Cleaner Fluid Regular is a great product that effortlessly cleans and transforms the appearance of well-maintained paint in no time at all, which makes it ideal for enthusiasts and professionals alike.

Other Relevant Articles

4.      How to determine the least aggressive polishing method? - http://togwt1980.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/how-to-determine-least-aggressive.html

I would like to think that these articles become an asset to anyone who is new to detailing and to professional’s alike, as well as industry experts who seek to advance their knowledge.

I hope the above article was informative. By having some understanding of the ‘What’ and ‘Why’ as well as the ‘How’ along with a little science to help you understand how the chemicals we use react, you can achieve the results you desire.

I would appreciate it if you would share this article as it helps other detailers further their knowledge.

Questions and/ or constructive comments are always appreciated.


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